Carbon dating how much

05-Oct-2017 12:20 by 10 Comments

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For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent.

This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to smelt iron and to control the carbon content of steel: Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel, and tungsten carbide, widely used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools.This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals.The delocalization also accounts for the energetic stability of graphite over diamond at room temperature.Although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature.Carbon is the sixth element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s, of which the four outer electrons are valence electrons.This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties (the sheets slip easily past one another).

Because of the delocalization of one of the outer electrons of each atom to form a π-cloud, graphite conducts electricity, but only in the plane of each covalently bonded sheet.Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some of the energy produced by the Sun and other stars.Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions.Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds.Graphite is much more reactive than diamond at standard conditions, despite being more thermodynamically stable, as its delocalised pi system is much more vulnerable to attack.All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form.

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