Dating kaolin pipe stem holes
Dating kaolin pipe stem holes - Babblesex have web chat
Based on the ethnohistoric records (see Chapter 2) the major period of occupation for the town of Tomotley was during the Colonial Period, mainly 1750 to 1776.This span of occupation was confirmed by the general lack of artifacts from the Contact, Revolutionary, and Federal periods.
And in contrast to South's original format in which kaolin pipe remnants appear as a separate category, pipe bowls and stems from Tomotley are also included in the "Personal" functional artifact category.An example of artifacts representing this functional group is illustrated in Figures II.1 and II.2.The "construction tool" class included one axe (Feature 383), one hatchet (Feature 415), two planing blades (Feature 383), and three wedge/chisel implements (surface); all made of iron.The spade-shaped hoe appears to be a modified broad hoe and exemplifies some recycling of iron tools.According to Newman (1977: 78) hoes were a popular trade item among the Cherokee and were a key "acculturation" implement in transforming warriors to farmers.While axes and hatchets appear in Euro-American trade lists (Newman 1977: 77), planing blades and wedge/chisels do not appear on trade records and were probably obtained from Fort Loudoun refuse.
Farm tools included four hoes of various styles (i.e., a grubbing hoe, a spade-shaped hoe, and two broad hoes).
Several archaeological site reports describing comparable period sites were useful in identification of historic artifacts.
These references included Ford's (1979) Citico site report, Newman's (1977) Chota-Tanasee site report, Polhemus' (1979) Tellico Blockhouse study, and Stone's (1974) Fort Michilimackinac publication.
Other published references of general and specific interest were Early American Ironware (Kauffman 1966), The Age 0f Firearms (Held 1957), A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (Noel Hume 1969), and Classification System for Glass Beads (Kidd and Kidd 1970).
A total of 11,893 Euro-American manufactured artifacts were analyzed.
As previously stated, the identification format was adopted from South's (1977: 95-96) classification system for eighteenth century Colonial-American artifacts.