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The herbicide resistance of this strain has at least two possible explanations: that a "peer-to-peer" network of coca farmers used selective breeding to enhance this trait through tireless effort, or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory.
truxillense is derived from it to be drought tolerant, and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. Recent research based on genetic evidence (Johnson et al.
Extensive archaeological evidence for the chewing of coca leaves dates back at least to the 6th century AD Moche period, and the subsequent Inca period, based on mummies found with a supply of coca leaves, pottery depicting the characteristic cheek bulge of a coca chewer, spatulas for extracting alkali and figured bags for coca leaves and lime made from precious metals, and gold representations of coca in special gardens of the Inca in Cuzco.
Coca chewing may originally have been limited to the eastern Andes before its introduction to the Inca.
Coca is traditionally cultivated in the lower altitudes of the eastern slopes of the Andes (the Yungas), or the highlands depending on the species grown.
Coca production begins in the valleys and upper jungle regions of the Andean region, where the countries of Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are host to more than 98 per cent of the global land area planted with coca.
Coca leaf extract had been used in Coca-Cola products since 1885, with cocaine being completely eliminated from the products in or around 1903.
The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height of 2 to 3 metres (7 to 10 feet).
The flowers are small, and disposed in clusters on short stalks; the corolla is composed of five yellowish-white petals, the anthers are heart-shaped, and the pistil consists of three carpels united to form a three-chambered ovary. The leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of the moth Eloria noyesi.
There are two species of cultivated coca, each with two varieties: ) suggests that Erythroxylum coca var.
The two subspecies of Erythroxylum coca are almost indistinguishable phenotypically. novogranatense and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense are phenotypically similar, but morphologically distinguishable.
Under the older Cronquist system of classifying flowering plants, this was placed in an order Linales; more modern systems place it in the order Malpighiales.
Also known as supercoca or la millionaria, Boliviana negra is a relatively new form of coca that is resistant to a herbicide called glyphosate.